Bibliography

LiveVegan.org REFERENCES (organized by page/section)

Why Live Vegan / Animals

(1) Professor John Webster quoted in The Guardian, October 14, 1991.

(2) G. John Benson, DVM, MS and Bernard E. Rollin, PhD, editors, The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions (Blackwell Publishing, 2004).

(3) Bear, Matt (2005). Now FARM’s Vegan Project Director, Matt Bear toured the “Nest Fresh” cage-free egg facility, Niwot, Colorado 2005 with the facility operator and then Nest Fresh president Cyd Szymanski.

(4) Bear, Matt (2012). Matt is a former farm kid, former pig farmer, and now a vegan advocate and FARM’s Vegan Projects Director.

(5) Goihl, John (2008, January 28). Transport Losses of Market Hogs Studied. Feedstuffs.

(6) Gay, Lance (2001, February). Faulty Practices Result in Inhumane Slaughterhouses. Scripps Howard News Service.

Why Live Vegan / Planet

 (1) See T. Colin Campbell, The China Study (2005) see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_China_StudySee also, Center for Science in the Public Interest, Nutrition Policyavailable at http://www.cspinet.org/nutritionpolicy/nutrition_policy.html (The US diet contributes to four of the six leading causes of death and increases the risk of numerous diseases, including: heart disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, stroke, osteoporosis, and many cancers (colon, prostate, mouth, throat, esophagus, lung, stomach) “The typical American diet is too high in saturated fat, sodium, and sugar and too low in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, calcium, and fiber. . . According to the USDA, healthier diets could prevent at least $71 billion per year in medical costs, lost productivity, and lost lives.  That is an underestimate because it accounts for only diet-related coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes and not other diet-related diseases. Obesity alone is estimated to cost $117 billion, and osteoporosis costs $14 billion in medical expenses.”)

(2) John Vidal, 10 Ways Vegetarianism Can Help Save The Planet, The Guardian (July 2010), available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2010/jul/18/vegetarianism-save-planet-environment (“More than one third of the world’s 825 “ecoregions” identified by conservation group WWF are said to be threatened by livestock and giant US group Conservation International reckons that 23 out of 40-odd global “biodiversity hotspots” – the places considered most valuable for life – are now seriously affected by livestock production.”); United Nations, Livestock’s Long Shadow (Nov. 2006) available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a0701e/a0701e.pdf. (“Livestock now account for about 20 percent of the total terrestrial animal biomass, and the 30 percent of the earth’s land surface that they now pre-empt was once habitat for wildlife.”)

(3) Robert Goodland & Jeff Anhang, Worldwatch Institute (Nov/Dec 2009) see http://51percent.org/available at http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/Livestock%20and%20Climate%20Change.pdf. (Former World Bank scientists report that livestock’s impact is 51% of annual worldwide GHG emissions, or 32.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide per year.) United Nations, supra note 3 (“The livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global.”)

(4) UN, supra note 3 (“70 percent of previous forested land in the Amazon is occupied by pastures, and feedcrops cover a large part of the remainder”). See also,  http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/blog/forests/how-cattle-ranching-chewing-amazon-rainforest-20090129

(5) William S. Eubanks II, A Rotten System: Subsidizing Environmental Degradation and Poor Public Health with Our Nation’s Tax Dollars, 28 Stan. Envtl. L.J. 213, 251-273 (2009) (water pollution caused by pesticides, fertilizers, erosion, antibiotics, manure, both directly from the animals and from the crops that the animals consume, causes significant water quality degradation and human disease and death). See also, UN, supra note 3 at 125-176 (reporting livestock’s role in water depletion and pollution.)

(6) “Farmed animals consume 70 percent of the corn, wheat, and other grains that we grow, and one-third of all the raw materials and fossil fuels used in the U.S. go to raising animals for food.” Source:http://www.peta.org/living/vegetarian-living/vegetarian-101.aspx

(7) http://www.all-creatures.org/tytt/env-animalag.html citing Vesterby and Krupa; compare to http://www.veganoutreach.org/whyvegan/gaechter.html(“According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), over 66.9 million acres of harvested cropland is dedicated to growing fodder for the animals that people eventually use for food.  This number equals roughly 22 percent of harvested cropland (16 percent of all cropland) in the United States. Furthermore, this acreage must be added to the 461 million acres occupied as pasture and grazing land in order to account for the total area dedicated to the production of “meat”, eggs, and dairy. In total, the industry occupies roughly 528 million acres, or 57 percent of all domestic agricultural land. It is important to note that if all Americans ate a purely vegetarian diet, at least 461 million acres of pastureland would become available for other purposes.”); compare to John Vidal, supra note 3 (reporting that around “13m hectares of land in the US were used to grow vegetables, rice, fruit, potatoes and beans, but 302m were used for livestock; US land used to grow animal feed includes 11 million irrigated acres and 55 million non-irrigated acres.”).

(8) USDA slaughter stats 2008: Cattle: 35,507,500; Pigs: 116,558,900; Chickens: 9,075,261,000; Layer hens: 69,683,000; Broiler chickens: 9,005,578,000; Turkeys: 271,245,000. Source:http://www.animalliberationfront.com/Practical/FactoryFarm/USDAnumbers.htm compare with http://www.upc-online.org/slaughter/2008americans.html (71 billion sea animals and 8.56 billion land animals) and compare with http://www.upc-online.org/slaughter/92704stats.htm (worldwide statistics: 50 billion farmed animals are slaughtered each year).

(9) Eubanks , supra note 6 at 269 (citing Daniel Imhoff, Food Fight: The Citizen’s Guide to a Food and Farm Bill 102 (2007) (reporting that “[d]ue to this heavy dependence on fossil fuels, industrial agriculture now accounts for 20% of U.S. fossil fuel consumption to grow, process, and distribute food.”); compare to PETA, supra note 7 (animal agriculture consumes 33% of US fossil fuels); See also, UN supra note 3. see Dale Allen Pfeiffer, Eating Fossil Fuels, http://www.fromthewilderness.com/free/ww3/100303_eating_oil.html

(10) See John Vidal and the UN, supra note 3

(11) http://www.idausa.org/campaigns/vegan/betterthanlocal.html citing a 2008 study in the Journal of Environmental Science and Technology: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es702969f

(12) H. Steinfeld et al., “Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options”, Livestock, Environment and Development (2006).

(13) International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management, "Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production," United Nations Environment Programme 2010.

(14) Gidon Eshel and Pamela Martin (2006) http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/06/060413.diet.shtml

(15) “Sources and Emissions: Methane,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2 Jun. 2006.

(16) H. Steinfeld, et al., “Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options,” Livestock, Environment and Development (2006).

(17) Statistics for the amount of water required to produce animal flesh vary widely. For example, we found statistics on cow flesh to vary from 441 gallons (offered by a study provided by the Cattlemen’s Association which we don’t consider valid as it’s an industry-supplied number), to the more widely accepted 2500 gallons per pound (J. Robbins), to over 5000 gallons per pound in studies done in California that stated 5214 gallons of water per pound of cattle flesh (Journal Soil and Water (no. 38, fall 1978)., all the way up to 12,009 gallons of water (Ecological Integrity: Integrating Environment, Conservation and Health (Island Press, Washington DC, 2001).

There is also this statistic: It takes 5,000 gallons of water to produce 1 pound of “meat”, while growing 1 pound of wheat only requires 25 gallons. (Robbins, The Food Revolution, p. 236.)

We used a conservative number (2500). 

“Average” is also a difficult term to define.  For example, do we average 1 cow + 1 chicken + 1 pig + 1 veal calf + one goat + one… the list of animals people eat seems to be endless.  Or do we average the number of animals raised for food on the planet and average that?  Will the average change if people consume more cows and fewer chickens and vice versa?

We used data compiled from the USDA, the University of California, and from an article/link from Ohio State University’s Animal Science department about the numbers of animals raised for food worldwide.

Here’s a summary:

Animals

Gallons of Water per Pound

Pounds of “meat” Consumed in the World

Gallons of Water Totals

Cows

5214

123,458,866,720

643,714,531,078,080.00

Pigs

1630

195,109,101,870

318,027,836,048,100.00

Chickens

815

139,442,380,715

113,645,540,282,725.00

458,010,349,305

1,075,387,907,408,900.00

Avg. Gallons of Water Per Pound

2,347.96

Given that numbers usually don’t include the immense amounts of water used in slaughter, we think 2500 remains a conservative and fairly accurate “average” number. 

As for milk, we had the same difficulty finding a consistent number.  The numbers range from below 750 gallons of water per gallon of milk according to the dairy industry to 2000 gallons from New Scientist Magazine, Feb. 25 issue, 2006 "The Parched Planet.”  This is the most recent statistic we were able to find.

From the hundreds of different statistics we found – the only citations under 750 gallons were from “meat”/dairy industry sources.  We feel that 750 is conservative (on the very low end) while not giving in to the exaggerated lower numbers provided by the industry.

Regardless of the exact number, you’ll find that raising animals for food wastes water… LOTS of it.

Here’s the math on the “shower” statistic:

Average water used by someone on a “meat”-based diet = 4000/day
Average water used by someone on a Vegan diet = 300/day
From “Diet for a New America” by John Robbins (1987)

4000 – 300 = 3700 gallons of water per day saved by making Vegan choices

3700 gallons/day X 365 days (1 year) = 1,350,500 gallons per year saved

1,350,500 per year = 2.57 gallons per minute

A shower head typically will distribute 2.5 gallons of water per minute… less than that used by someone on a “meat”/dairy-based diet (even while they’re sleeping).

(18) Robbins, John. Diet for a New America, HJ Kramer Inc, California 1987

(19) Laurence, Charles. US farmers fear the return of the Dust Bowl. March 7, 2011. Retrieved 11/17/2011 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/8359076/US-farmers-fear-the-return-of-the-Dust-Bowl.html

(20) David Pimentel and Carl W. Hall. Food and Natural Resources (Sand Deigo: Academic Press, 1989), 35.

(21) WorldWatch Institute, “Fire Up the Grill for a Mouthwatering Red, White, and Green July 4th”, 2 Jul. 2003. And http://www.goveg.com/environment-pollution.asp We used this number because it was conservative.  You may also refer to the number “250,000 pounds per second” from “The Food Revolution” by John Robbins (2001) and “Diet for a New America” by John Robbins (1987)

(22) N.Y. Times. (2003, May 11). Neighbors of vast hog farms say foul air endangers their health.

(23) Robbins, John. Diet for a New America (1987).

(24) Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M., & Haan, C., (2006). Livestock’s Long Shadow: environmental issues and options. Food and drug organization of the United Nations.

Why Live Vegan / People

(1)    Marcus, Erik (2001). Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating, Chapter 11: World Hunger. McBooks Press, Ithica, NY.

(2)    Mills, Milton (1999). Sourced from internet searches and http://www.pcrm.org/search/?cid=1484. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, PCRM.org.

(3)    Most of these stats are cited by Robbins, John. Diet for a New America, HJ Kramer Inc, California 1987.

(4)    Robbins, John (1987). Diet for a New America, HJ Kramer Inc, California.

(5)    Marcus, Erik (2001). Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating, Chapter 11: World Hunger. McBooks Press, Ithica, NY.
AND Asia-Pacific Region Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (September 11, 1998). Asia-Pacific Food Security and Stability. Honolulu, HI.

(6)    “Research has shown that vegetarians are 50 percent less likely to develop heart disease, and they have 40 percent of the cancer rate of “meat”-eaters.  Even less for Vegans.” Elizabeth Somer (1999). Eating meat: A Little Doesn't Hurt. WebMD.
AND Neal Barnard, M.D. (1990, p. 26) The Power of Your PlateBook Publishing Co. Summertown, Tenn.

(7)    Human Rights Watch (2005). http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2005/01/24/abuses-against-workers-taint-us-meat-and-poultry

AND
Human Rights Watch (2004). http://www.hrw.org/node/11869/section/1

(8-11) Schlosser, Eric (2001). Fast Food Nation. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.

(12) USDA data

(13) Brown, Harold. http://www.farmkind.org/

(14) Fitzgerald, Amy, et al. (2009). “Slaughterhouses and Increased Crime Rates: An Empirical Analysis of the Spillover From “The Jungle” Into the Surrounding Community.” Michigan State University. http://animalstudies.msu.edu/Slaughterhouses_and_Increased_Crime_Rates.pdf

(15) Other links on animal farm workers, slaughterhouse workers, and the psychological toll of the animal agribusiness industry, were retrieved online 05/01/2012 here:
http://www.blog.farmusa.org/tag/vegnews/
https://webspace.utexas.edu/hcleaver/www/meatfactory.html
http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2005/08/02/meatpackings-human-toll
http://www.upc-online.org/fall04/virgil.htm

(16) Bluejay, Michael (2011). Bicycling Wastes Gas? Retrieved 05/01/2012 online from http://bicycleuniverse.info/transpo/energy.html

(17) “Research has shown that vegetarians are 50 percent less likely to develop heart disease, and they have 40 percent of the cancer rate of “meat”-eaters.  Even less for Vegans.” Elizabeth Somer, "Eating meat: A Little Doesn't Hurt," WebMD, 1999.
AND Neal Barnard, M.D., The Power of Your Plate Book Publishing Co.: Summertown, Tenn., 1990, p. 26.
AND much more information at www.PCRM.org.

Live Vegan Pledge Calculations:

Animals Saved per year by going vegan compiled using data and calculations provided at/by http://animaldeathcount.blogspot.com/

Average number per year = 198

year

days/week

year

9 mos

6 mos

3 mos

1 month

0.542466

1

28

21

14

7

2

0.542466

2

57

42

28

14

5

0.542466

3

85

64

42

21

7

0.542466

4

113

85

57

28

9

0.542466

5

141

106

71

35

12

0.542466

6

170

127

85

42

14

0.542466

7

198

149

99

50

17

Rainforest SQUARE FEET saved/year by going vegetarian 1 day/week = 7700 square feet

http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.02110445

 

days/week

year

9 mos

6 mos

3 mos

1 month

7700

1

7700

5775

3850

1925

642

7700

2

15400

11550

7700

3850

1283

7700

3

23100

17325

11550

5775

1925

7700

4

30800

23100

15400

7700

2567

7700

5

38500

28875

19250

9625

3208

7700

6

46200

34650

23100

11550

3850

7700

7

53900

40425

26950

13475

4492

Water GALLONS saved based on 4000 gal/day meat/dairy eater vs 300 gal/day vegan

Average water used by someone on a meat‐based diet = 4000/day

Average water used by someone on a Vegan diet = 300/day

From “Diet for a New America” by John Robbins (1987)

4000 – 300 = 3700 gallons of water per day saved by making Vegan choices

3700 gallons/day X 365 days (1 year) = 1,350,500 gallons per year save

1 day

1 month

2 months

3 months

4 months

5 months

6 months

7 months

8 months

9 months

10 months

11 months

1 year

3,700

112,542

225,083

337,625

450,167

562,708

675,250

787,792

900,333

1,012,875

1,125,417

1,237,958

1,350,500

1 day/wk

16,077

32,155

48,232

64,310

80,387

96,464

112,542

128,619

144,696

160,774

176,851

192,929

2 day/wk

32,155

64,310

96,464

128,619

160,774

192,929

225,083

257,238

289,393

321,548

353,702

385,857

3 day/wk

48,232

96,464

144,696

192,929

241,161

289,393

337,625

385,857

434,089

482,322

530,554

578,786

4 day/wk

64,310

128,619

192,929

257,238

321,548

385,857

450,167

514,476

578,786

643,095

707,405

771,714

5 day/wk

80,387

160,774

241,161

321,548

401,935

482,322

562,708

643,095

723,482

803,869

884,256

964,643

6 day/wk

96,464

192,929

289,393

385,857

482,322

578,786

675,250

771,714

723,482

964,643

1,061,107

1,157,572

7 day/wk

112,542

225,083

337,625

450,167

562,708

675,250

787,792

900,334

1,012,875

1,125,417

1,237,959

1,350,500

 

3 months

6 months

9 months

year

1-2 day/wk

40,000

90,000

140,000

190,000

3-4 day/wk

140,000

280,000

430,000

570,000

5-6 day/wk

240,000

480,000

720,000

960,000

vegan

330,000

670,000

1,000,000

1,300,000